All Professional Bodies, National Associations (e.g. Mental Health, School, Guidance, Addiction, Faith-based etc.) and Accrediting Organisations.
Universities and Other Education and Training Institutes
- University Website: https://www.maltepe.edu.tr/
- Programme Website: https://aday.maltepe.edu.tr/en/academics/department/6/guidance-and-psychological-counseling
- Programme Types: B.A. Guidance and Psychological Counselling, B.Sc. Psychology
Near East University
- University Website: https://neu.edu.tr/?lang=en
- Programme Website: https://neu.edu.tr/academic/graduate-schools/graduate-school-of-educational-sciences/programs/guidance-and-psychological-counselling/?lang=en
- Programme Types: Master of Guidance and Psychological Counselling
Counselling Agencies, Services, Group Practices, Counselling Centres
Olive Tree Counselling Center
Background & Context
Dogan (1998) explained that the development of counselling in Turkey can be divided into five periods. The first period occurred between 1950-1956 (Taking initial steps) and it marked the beginning of counselling in the 1950s (Dogan, 1998). This is when American experts visited on behalf of a Marshall programme for post World War II development and exchanged information on education and guidance (Dogan, 1998). Between 1953-1954, “guidance and counselling courses were added to the Gazi Teacher Training College” (Stockton & Güneri, 2011, p. 99). In period two (1957-1969; Formative Years), group tests and major changes within schools occurred (Dogan, 1998). Various universities began forming undergraduate and graduate programs for counselling as well (Dogan, 1998). In period three (1970-1981; Establish counselling practices in school), the Ministry of National Education “employed 90 counsellors to start services for 24 selected secondary schools” (Dogan, 1998, p. 3). In period four (1982-1995; Establishing undergraduate programs in counselling), there was a rapid increase of counselling programs offered by multiple Turkish universities, which was encouraged by the Higher Education Law (Dogan, 1998). In 1989, the Turkish Psychological Counselling and Guidance Association (TPCGA) was established (Dogan, 1998). In period five (1996-present; Assigning counsellors to schools), Dogan (1998) further explained how the counselling profession saw some standardizations implemented by the TPCGA through its Ethics Commission and Commission for Professional Unity. Additionally, the TPCGA has been releasing semi-annual journals and published books and translations of books in Turkish on counselling.
Current Regulatory Status / Level of Recognition:
Counsellors in Turkey are registered under the Turkish Psychological Counselling and Guidance Association (TPCGA), though the level of recognition or how they are
recognized is not evident from the website. Turkey does not provide insurance benefits to those attending counselling sessions. However, some counsellors do accept insurance. The education of counselling has continued to grow, but most degrees are only offered through educational departments rather than counselling programs.
It is unknown exactly how many counsellors are practicing in Turkey. Counselling services in Turkey are available through:
- Private Practices
- Counselling Centres
Challenges & Trends
One of the ongoing challenges, especially during the earlier years of counselling in Turkey, is the adoption of American counselling practices and values. Turkey’s introduction to counselling was based on the influence of American practices, the issue is that there was a poor fit culturally, as the cultures of both the countries differed vastly (Stockton & Güneri, 2011). A second challenge is that counselling programs have had trouble developing outside the educational setting (Stockton & Güneri, 2011). Thus, according to Dogan (2002) as cited in Stockton & Güneri (2011), there is still a lack of uniformity and consistency between the universities providing counselling programs.
Additional Information & References
Dogan, S. (2000): The historical development of counseling in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 22(1), 57-67.
Euroguidance (2020): National Guidance System. Guidance System in Turkey. [09/10/2020] https://www.euroguidance.eu/guidance-system-in-turkey
Owen, FK, & Güneri, OY (2015): Counselling in Turkey. Counselling around the world: An international handbook , 293-302.
Yüksel, G. (2003): The development of counsellor education in Turkey: Current status and future challenges. Asian Journal of Counselling, 10(2), 193-214.